The Whole Nature Of God In The Predestination Dilemma

Study of the Theological Dilemma of Predestination Based on God's Perfect Nature

  • Pangeran Manurung Evangelical Theological Seminary of Indonesia – Surabaya
Keywords: Dilemma, Predestination, Nature of God, Whole


The problem in this paper lies in the polemic that arises in the understanding of double predestination, especially regarding the theological dilemmas in it. On the one hand, God is described as a cruel and inhuman God when only choosing some people to be saved, and on the other hand Christian doctrine recognizes that God does indeed choose some people to love. The purpose of writing this essay is to prove that a comprehensive approach can reduce theological dilemmas and conflicts when discussing the formulation of predestination. The research method used is literature study, by describing the core of Calvin's double predestination and reviewing it by involving the interrelated attributes of God. The results of this study prove that when the concept of predestination is reviewed by involving the attributes of God as a whole, it appears that God cannot be called an arrogant God when choosing humans in the project of salvation.


[1] Leibniz, GW. Dissertation on Predestination and Grace. Translated by Michael J. Murray. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2011.
[2] Damascene, John. De Fide Orthodoxa II, Chapter 29 (PL XCIV, 968-976.
[3] Echavarria, Augustin. Metafísica leibniziana de la permisión del mal. Pamplona: Eunsa, 2011.
[4] Aquinas, Thomas. Quaestiones Disputatae de Veritate, q23, a2 translated by Robert W. Smith, SJ. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1954.
[5] Leibniz, GW. The Shorter Leibniz texts. A Collection of New Translations, Lloyd Strickland Translation (London: Continuum, 2006.
[6] Leibniz, GW. Lettres et fragments inédits sur les problèmes philosophiques, Théologiques, politiques de la reconciliation des doctrines protestantes (1669-1704), Paul Schrecker's Translation (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1934.
[7] J. Shields , "Leibniz's Doctrine of the Striving Possibles," Journal of the History of Philosophy 42/3 (1986).
[8] Murray, Michael J. Leibniz's Proposal for theological Reconciliation among the Protestants," American.
How to Cite
Manurung, P. (2019). The Whole Nature Of God In The Predestination Dilemma. Journal DIDASKALIA, 2(2), 14-31.